The kiwi fruit is an excellent source of health benefits for men. It is packed with antioxidants, which help to fight cancer and other diseases. It also contains reasonable amounts of fiber, which helps to prevent cardiovascular disease.
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Physiology of kiwifruit during ripening
During the ripening process of kiwifruit, several bioactive molecules are produced. The fruits contain vitamin C and phytochemicals that are potent antioxidants. Additionally, the kiwi fruit is rich in fiber. This dietary fiber is comprised of xylan, xyloglucan, and hemicelluloses. Some of the kiwifruit’s phytochemicals also contribute to the development of healthy skin. In addition, fruit is a good source of vitamin E and potassium. These bioactive compounds may play an essential role in improving heart health. A recent study by Asche et al. published in the Journal of Experimental Botany studied the whole ripening process of kiwifruit to identify the roles of proteins in fruit ripening.
Proteomic analyses revealed that cold kiwifruit storage induced several proteolytic enzymes. Among these, acylamino acid-releasing enzyme (AACE) and subtilisin-like protease (SLAP) were overrepresented. Acutely stressed fruits have a greater tendency to generate non-soluble polypeptide species. Therefore, these enzymes can be involved in the production of misfolded polypeptides.
Proteomic analyses showed that proteins in the fruit were differentially represented at certain times during ripening. The results also indicated that the molecular interactions of the proteins were modulated during the postharvest life of the kiwifruit. However, the overall protein concentrations remained unaltered. Most of the proteins that were differentially represented are ROS-scavenging species.
Overall, the concentration of procyanidins (PC) was the most abundant molecular class at the T0 time. In parallel, the amount of Val and Ile increased. Other molecular types accounted for less than half of the total phenolic content. For example, at T1, flavonols accounted for the second most abundant molecular class.
At T1-T3, the level of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR1) was augmented. Both are involved in the conjugation of toxic molecules to glutathione. Moreover, the polyphenol oxidase (NHS) concentration was also significantly elevated at T3.
These results indicate that the kiwifruit cold storage process induces several proteolytic enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of antioxidants. In addition, this may explain the slight increase in polyphenolics at T3.
Besides the changes mentioned above, the overall protein content of the kiwifruit also showed significant differences at T1 and T3. Proteins associated with metabolism and disease/defense mechanisms were temporarily affected. Interestingly, the proteins that were down-represented at the specific fruit postharvest times were characterized by lower numbers. Consequently, they were omitted from the 2D-DIGE and comigrating protein analyses. Therefore, the corresponding individual metabolites will be discussed with the related physiological processes.
Bioinformatic prediction of the protein-protein interaction network revealed a highly-ramified network. This network contained 98 sequence entries corresponding to four main functional groups: cellular structures, energy, disease/defense, and metabolism. Furthermore, the network spanned three subnetworks.
Overall, the dynamic expression profile of the proteins showed a common trend over time. This suggests that these proteins regulate the ripening process of kiwifruit.
Suitable indicators of maturity for kiwis
The nutritional profile of the kiwifruit is impressive, including a wide variety of nutrients that contribute to general well-being. Its vitamin content ranges from the renowned antioxidant vitamin C to traces of calcium and phosphorus, which support bone health. Among its other vitamins, the fruit is an excellent source of the nutrient folate, with 17.2 micrograms, or 4% of an adult’s daily intake.
In addition to its antioxidant properties, the kiwifruit also contains several other beneficial compounds, including vitamin E, which promotes optimal immune function. Its vitamin C content is also essential for immune functions. Studies have shown that people with higher blood concentrations of vitamin C and E have a reduced risk of death from all causes.
Kiwifruit is native to southwest China and is grown in many other regions worldwide. It is a hardy species that can survive in a wide range of climates, and all commercial plantings in New Zealand can be traced back to seeds introduced by Isabel Fraser.
Kiwifruits are low in calories but contain several antioxidants and other plant compounds that have anti-inflammatory effects. They also contain phosphorus, iron, calcium, and vitamin E. These vitamins and minerals help the body to heal wounds, and consuming kiwis may have other beneficial effects on health, such as helping to maintain heart and digestive health.
In addition to their nutritional value, kiwis have a high antioxidant capacity, which can be important for people who are susceptible to cancer. Its antioxidant properties also protect the body against free radicals, which can damage DNA. As a result, it has been found that dietary supplements containing kiwifruit can effectively reduce the risk of cancer.
Various factors contribute to natural variation in the vitamin C content of kiwifruit, including the growing region and time of harvest. The fruit’s storage conditions also influence this variation.
A study on the effect of kiwifruit consumption on gastrointestinal health found that kiwis can help the digestive system function properly. Specifically, soluble fiber, which is present in kiwis, helps to improve the consistency of stools, decrease the time food takes to pass through the digestive system, and support the health of gut bacteria. Additionally, it can also help to regulate blood sugar levels. Several studies have suggested that the presence of kiwifruit in diets can also reduce the risk of colorectal and kidney cancer.
Kiwis can be eaten by themselves or added to salads, salsas, marinades, and dressings. During pregnancy, fresh kiwis can be a valuable addition to your diet. Fresh kiwis also contribute to baby teeth growth and help prevent tooth decay. Although kiwifruits are best enjoyed new, you can add them to smoothies and other recipes.
GI benefits of kiwis
Kiwi fruit is a tasty, tart fruit full of antioxidants and digestive-supporting fiber. A study by University of Hong Kong researchers found that regular kiwifruit consumption lowers blood pressure and improves the body’s GI system. While this isn’t a new finding, the University of Hong Kong researchers also discovered that kiwifruits are a healthy and tasty treat for people with high blood pressure, making them an excellent option for preventing heart disease and stroke.
Another benefit to consuming kiwifruit is the high concentration of vitamin C, which is required for healthy bones and teeth. It also helps reduce free radicals, which damage DNA and cause various types of cancer. This vitamin can be obtained by eating whole or dried kiwifruit. One kiwi contains about 64 micrograms of vitamin C, about 71 percent of the recommended daily intake for men.
Some studies have suggested that high kiwifruit consumption may help prevent certain cancers, particularly colon cancer. Research indicates that the fruit’s soluble fiber can protect cholesterol from oxidation. If you’re looking to lower your risk of colorectal cancer, eat more fruits and vegetables, especially those rich in soluble fiber. Similarly, a high intake of potassium may help prevent kidney stones.
Actinidin is a compound found in kiwis that have been studied for its potential to influence protein digestion and intestinal permeability. Its effects on the gastrointestinal tract have been demonstrated in laboratory experiments. However, it’s still unclear whether these effects are confirmed in humans.
One of kiwifruit fibers’ most critical physicochemical properties is their hydration properties. Water retention influences the bulk and consistency of stools. Furthermore, dietary fiber may slow down the absorption of carbohydrates, reducing their glycaemic impact on the body. These dietary fibers are made up of hemicellulose and cellulose.
The amount of sugar in kiwifruits varies by species. For instance, green kiwifruit contains 24% dietary fiber, while gold kiwifruit contains up to 34%. Also, the total sugar content varies, as well.
Researchers have also found that regular kiwifruit consumption can decrease circulating fat in the blood. In addition, the fruit has been shown to help promote the growth of colonic bacteria, which in turn can contribute to a healthier microbial community.
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One of the kiwi benefits for males is improved sex drive and sperm quality. This is due to the antioxidants in kiwifruit, which can help neutralize free radicals in the body. Moreover, a higher zinc level has been reported in males with more excellent sperm quality.
Other GI benefits of kiwifruit include a better laxative effect, which can reduce the severity of constipation. Soluble fibers can help ease the discomfort of a bowel movement, while insoluble fibers can add bulk to stool and support a regular bowel movement.